The Pipeliners Podcast is excited to deliver a series of episodes with Giancarlo Milano of Atmos International. In this fifth and final episode of the series on leak detection, Russel Treat and Giancarlo reverse roles with Giancarlo interviewing Russel about leak alarm response.
In this episode, you will learn about the technological side of setting up leak alarms in the SCADA system, the importance of training controllers to respond to alarms, how software can reduce false alarms, and other important topics driving toward the ultimate goal of helping controllers achieve situational awareness.
To listen to the full series of episodes on leak detection with Russel Treat and Giancarlo Milano, visit this page for all of Giancarlo’s appearances on the Pipeliners Podcast.
Leak Alarm Response: Show Notes, Links, and Insider Terms
- Giancarlo Milano is the Senior Simulation Support Engineer at Atmos International. Connect with Giancarlo on LinkedIn.
- As part of this series with Giancarlo, enter to win our free book giveaway contest for the “Introduction to Pipeline Leak Detection” book by Atmos founders Michael Twomey and Jun Zhang.
- Leak detection systems include external and internal methods.
- External methods are based on observing external factors within the pipeline to see if any product is released outside the line.
- Internal methods are based on measuring parameters of the hydraulics of the pipeline such as flow rate, pressure, density, or temperature. The information is placed in a computational algorithm to determines whether there is a leak.
- Leak alarm response is how controllers are trained to identify and respond to a leak alarm in a timely manner, while also attempting to reduce the occurrences of false alarms.
- The nominal flow rate measures the volume of a substance passing through the pipeline under specific pressure conditions in normal operating conditions.
- LDUs are defined by Atmos as finding the start and finish of a “theft” event, i.e., the opening and closing of a valve to remove product from a pipeline. Many pipeline operators do not realize they have product theft until they detect it with the theft detection LDU or Theft Net Service.
- A leak signature captures an increase in flow combined with a drop in pressure in the pipeline, indicating the presence of a leak.
- The Control Room Management (CRM) Suite is the software tool offered by Russel Treat and EnerSys Corporation to support control room managers who want to continue using their existing SCADA system and HMI but need the tools and applications to conform to the CRM Rule.
- Situational awareness is the controller’s ability to perceive environmental elements and events, comprehend their meaning, and project their status after a variable has changed.
- API 1130 is a recommended practice published by the American Petroleum Institute and incorporated by reference into the U.S. pipeline regulations in 49 CFR 195.134 and 49 CFR 195.444 for how pipeline operators should design, operate, and maintain their computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) systems. While this standard was not discussed during the podcast, it is a critical document for any pipeline operator with CPM-based pipeline leak detection.
- API 1165 refers to the Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays. This standard outlines the best practices for designing and implementing displays that are used by controllers to evaluate information available in all operating conditions.
- Shift Handover (SHO) is the process of controllers transferring their shift to the next controller in a methodical way that complies with the CRM Rule and API 1168 for shift handover procedures. The CRM regulations require an operator to define the information that will be transferred during shift handover and the process by which this information is exchanged. [Read about the shift handover capabilities of the EnerSys CRMgr tool.]
- API 1175 is a recommended practice published by the American Petroleum Institute addressing how pipeline operators should maintain their leak detection program. The goal of the standard is to have the best leak detection system possible by always looking for continuous improvements to the individual LDS components achieving operational buy-in with the culture, strategies, KPIs, and testing.
- Alarm management is the process of managing the alarming system in a pipeline operation by documenting the alarm rationalization process, assisting controller alarm response, and generating alarm reports that comply with the CRM Rule for control room management. [Read about the ALMgr software analysis capabilities offered by EnerSys]
- Alarm rationalization is a component of the Alarm Management process of analyzing configured alarms to determine causes and consequences so that alarm priorities can be determined to adhere to API 1167. Additionally, this information is documented and made available to the controller to improve responses to uncommon alarm conditions.
- The Pipeline Safety Management System is an industry-wide oversight board for pipeline operators. At the recommendation of the NTSB, this collection of industry experts set a scalable framework for pipeline operators from small to large to operate safely and efficiently.
Leak Alarm Response: Full Episode Transcript
Russel Treat: Welcome to the “Pipeliners Podcast,” Episode 28.
Announcer: The Pipeliners Podcast. Where professionals, Bubba geeks, and industry insiders share their knowledge and experience about technology, projects, and pipeline operations. And now, your host… Russel Treat.
Russel Treat: Thanks for listening to the Pipeliners Podcast. We appreciate your taking the time. To show that appreciation, we’re giving away a customized YETI tumbler to one listener each episode.
This week, our winner is…oh my goodness! These names from Louisiana, I hope I pronounce them correctly. Our winner this week is Mick Gyorgy with Boardwalk Pipeline. Congratulations, Mick. Your YETI is on its way. To learn how you can win this signature price pack, stick around to the end of the episode.
Giancarlo, welcome back once again to the Pipeliners Podcast. Glad to have you.
Giancarlo Milano: Good to be back once again. Thank you for having me, Russel.
Russel: We’re going to flip it this time. Giancarlo and I talked about this. We thought it might be interesting to flip it around and let Giancarlo interview me about leak alarm response.
With that little bit of a tee up, Giancarlo, take it away. What would you like to know about leak alarm response?
Giancarlo: Once the system catches a leak, or generates an alarm, the most important part after that is what does the operator do after that alarm is received in his console.
I am in the business of making sure that I tune and optimize these leak detection systems and the technologies for operators. You are on the other side where you are configuring the SCADA system for pipeline operators and working with them and their alarm management systems.
From my point of view, we generate that alarm for the leak detection. Once it gets to your side, Russel, what’s the next step? What’s leak alarm response? How does that leak alarm response differentiate from any other type of alarm in your SCADA system?
Russel: That’s a great question, Giancarlo. Leak alarm response is once I get an alarm, what do I do? That’s pretty straightforward. I think the better part of the question is how is it different than any other type of alarm response.
I think the challenge with leak alarms is because of — and there’s documentation about this — because there are false alarms, and if you don’t have a good program for leak alarm response, what tends to happen is the controllers become numb and they start disregarding or dismissing a leak alarm.
If you think about it as a pipeline operator, a leak alarm is probably one of the most serious kinds of alarms I could have. That’s why there’s so much emphasis and effort around all this.
The first thing about leak alarm response is I need to quickly determine whether or not an alarm is false. I need to set some kind of time frame where if I can’t determine that leak alarm is false, then I do something very specific about how I’m operating my pipeline, like shut off the pumps and sectionalize the pipe for the area where I got the leak alarm.
Lastly, if I’m unable to determine quickly and easily that it is in fact a leak, then I need to be very clear about what is the process for restart. I view this as kind of a threefold response.
The first part of the response is do I have a leak. If yes, what specific action do I take? The second part is I can’t determine with certainty that it is in fact not a false alarm. Consequently, I’m going to treat it as if it is a real leak, and I’m going to do that in a certain amount of time.
Generally, that’s pretty short. It’s like 10, 15, 20 minutes, something like that. Lastly, if I do shut down and I’m not into some kind of leak mitigation thing, which is a whole different area of discussion, what do I need to do before I can restart the pipe?
What’s different about leak alarm is that whole diagnostic and the time frames you tend to put on these. They tend to be shorter than they might be for other kinds of alarms.
Giancarlo: Right. I think that the point that you’re making here about time limits is quite critical. It’s one of the most important ones. You want to make sure that you address that alarm in a timely manner.
Every time that you’re not responding to that leak alarm, or you’re not taking action then product could be potentially leaving the pipeline and contaminating the environment and making all sort of damages. Right?
Russel: Yeah. That’s exactly right. I might add to that, Giancarlo, if you think about the hydrology of this, I’m pumping in a pipeline under pressure. If I get a leak, what happens is I’ve got a place for that pressure to be relieved.
I can actually flow more through a leak than I would flow as a nominal flow rate in my pipeline because of that factor. I could put a lot of product on the ground very quickly, depending on how I’m operating.
Giancarlo: To follow up to that, not only on how you’re operating, it goes back to the topology or the elevation profile of the pipeline.
Having a leak at the top of the hill is not going to be the same as having a leak at the bottom of a hill. Differing pressure is going to cause a larger leak at the bottom, all depending on the dynamics of the leak.
Let me ask you this. Once we provide the user or the operator with that leak, from the SCADA perspective, what are the key identifiers that he should be looking at from the SCADA control screen?
Russel: I got to break this down a little. What you’re asking is a really good question, but there’s a bit that does into it. The first thing is I have to organize my system by area, and the area where I’m going to be able to do analysis about is this a leak or not. Atmos calls those LDUs.
I’m going to have to look at a particular area. Within that area, I’m going to need to get very clear about what does a leak look like. That’s probably the most important part of training for leak alarm response in the control room.
Typically, what I’m going to do is I’m going to build some pressure trends. I’m going to trend flows. I’m going to trend pressures. I might add some things like valve open/close. I might add flow control valve position.
I might add pump on or off. I might even have pump speed, that kind of thing. There’s correlation between how hard the pump’s working, the valve positions, and what’s going on with pressure.
If I combine that appropriately into a trend, what I’m going to want to look for is a leak signature. A leak signature is generally an increase in flow combined with a drop in pressure.
Giancarlo: Typically. That is correct, yes.
Russel: If I get a leak of any size, that leak signature, if I understand what I’m looking at and I know what normal looks like, then that leak signature should just jump right off the page at me.
In that case, I look and I go, that’s a leak signature. I’m taking action to protect the environment and secure the system. That’s the first step.
Second step is a little bit more difficult and that is when you don’t have a strong signature. In that case, what you need to do is you need to actually begin to dig into whatever leak detection tool you’re using and perform diagnostics there to get a level of comfort that it’s in fact not false.
The other thing you’re going to look at in addition to those things is, do I have communications? Are my instruments operating correctly? Is my leak detection tool performing correctly? Meaning, is the server not bogged down or something like that. That’s kind of the process I go through.
Now, the challenge is I gotta get through this quickly. Typically, if I’ve got a leak of size, it’s easy to see a leak signature, particularly if I have pre-built trends in my SCADA system that I can just go to and look at. Then, it gets a little bit more challenging after that.
That’s how you go through the process of is it false. The first is clear indication that it’s valid. The second is, okay, what are the things that could cause it to be false. I lost communications, I’ve got a bad instrument, that kind of thing. I can identify those and say, “Oh well, that’s clearly wrong.” Of course, you also look at transients — am I starting up, am I shutting down? — that kind of thing.
Giancarlo: Excellent, yes.
Russel: If I can’t get all that done within a time frame, I assume it’s a valid leak and take appropriate action.
Giancarlo: To follow up with that, if you’re not able to determine whether it’s a real leak or a false leak, or you’re in doubt, the next action that the operator should take is go ahead and take that pipeline to a shutdown and safe status.
Shutting it down, make sure that you’re not feeding more product to the pipeline that could be potentially feeding that leak. Then, you can do some analysis after that once the pipeline is shut down and isolated.
Giancarlo: All of this just brings back to when you and I started working together. At that point, I had some experience with SCADA and with the operators and how they react to leak alarms when they do set when we did SAT (Site Acceptance Testings) and put the system to the test by doing a physical withdrawal of the pipeline.
When we started working together, I remember that you were putting together your CRMs and your control room management application in order to bring down the pop-up that would help the operator determine what are the causes of that particular alarm that’s coming in.
I guess that when it comes to leak alarm response, you would have something that would be equivalent for leak alarm or the particular location. What are the key points that the operator should be looking at in order to determine whether it’s a real or not real like in that particular section of the pipeline? Maybe that’s something you could talk elaborate for me a little bit and maybe for the listeners out there.
Russel: It’s really timely because right before we got on this podcast, I was on a conference call with a customer and we were having exactly this conversation. Basically, that conversation is what do I need in the HMI and how do I implement it? That’s kind of the question you’re asking.
Giancarlo: Right. From my point of view, it’s a signal that turns on. There’s no leak and now there’s a leak. From their SCADA, when that comes in, I’ve been in control rooms where things start flashing. Maybe there’s a big light bulb that starts flashing red and then there’s another control room that has a sound that comes up to the operator, that specific alarm instance. How does that relate to the SCADA and the CRM itself? I find that very interesting. Go ahead.
Russel: There’s a whole lot that goes into this. When you start talking about alarms in a control room, you’ve got to be very careful because a couple of things that a lot of people don’t know, but it makes sense when you think about it is you asked the question how many alarms can a controller, an individual person working a console, how many alarms can they effectively respond to in an hour? The answer to that is six. Unless they’re critical, in which case, it’s two. It’s not more than two in 10 minutes, because physically, I just can’t take the action required in less time than that.
One of the big focuses in control room management is to be very deliberate about how many alarms you let make it to the console. You might have a lot of information that’s available if I ask for it, but the definition of an alarm is I must take action, I must take it in a time frame, and if I don’t something bad happens. That’s an alarm. We tend to use in our business alarm to mean a lot of things, which I would call notification. From an operations perspective, an alarm is I must take action. Clearly, a leak alarm is an “I must take action” kind of thing.
That’s the first bit. The second thing is there’s always a conversation about how much data do I put on the screens for the operators to be aware of so they can retain what’s called situational awareness? Situational awareness, again, simply stated is the ability to know where I’m at and where I’m headed if I don’t make any changes.
If you think about that from an operating perspective, is the operating state of my pipeline currently normal or abnormal? If it’s abnormal, how abnormal is it? If I don’t take action, will I continue to be normal? Am I moving back towards normal? Will I continue to be normal? Or, am I moving away from normal? How quickly am I moving in that direction? That’s situational awareness.
There’s a lot of conversation typically about what do I need to give the controller so that they might know that they might be having a leak? Actually, that’s kind of a false question. Because [laughs] you’re not really “might going to have a leak.” You either do or you don’t. [laughs]
Giancarlo: Right, it’s either one or the other.
Russel: Even though the tools we use are analog, the actual outcome is digital. I either have it or don’t have it. The tools are analog and indicate what my risk is based on all the math I’m doing, but the actual outcome is I have it or I don’t. Our answer is what I need to do is two things. When I get a leak alarm, I need to present it immediately to the operator and I need to give them the context of the leak.
I need to give them the location and the rate in the alarm message. And, I need to animate on my overview screen, the alarm. Typically, the way we do it is we actually place the alarm on the pipeline it’s occurring and in a way it’s relative to its location.
It might not be exact, because often, you don’t build the screens in a SCADA room correct like a map. It’s more like a subway map. This station is upstream of that station. I’ll locate it so I know. You’ve got a leak alarm, it’s on this pipeline, and it’s in the middle of the line or it’s at one end or the other. That’s helpful information for the controller.
Then, ideally, I want to implement yoking. Yoking is I’m going to click on that alarm indication and it’s going to automatically open the diagnostic screens around that alarm. One is going to be pressures, temperatures, and controls around where the leak is occurring. The other is probably going to be a specific detailed trend that’s used for leak diagnostic. That’s how you put that together.
Just to summarize it. An alarm rings in, shows up in the banner, and it gives me text about what it is, where it is, how big it is. It animates on my overview screens so I know I have a leak alarm and I have context about where that alarm is occurring. Then, when I click on that alarm, it will navigate me automatically to the screens I need to do diagnostics to determine whether that alarm is valid or not. All of that needs to occur within a minute-ish because that is all coming out of the time I have available to me to make a decision about can I continue to operate or not.
Giancarlo: Right. When we’re just talking about it, you might think that a minute would be a lot of time, but when you think about it you’re put under that pressure, the control room, and you have blinking lights all over the place. That could go very fast.
Russel: I want to talk a little about this because you’re bringing up a point and I want to underscore it. People who don’t understand control operations or don’t live in the control room, you tend to think when something goes wrong, there’s horns and there’s bright lights and there’s sounds.
Generally, that’s not the case because those things can become distractions. You actually want to clearly ring the alarm in, but you don’t want to do it in a way that raises the anxiety any more than necessary.
Control rooms, when you walk into them, they’re typically pretty calm. They feel laid back. When an alarm comes in, you don’t really see it in the environment. You see it in the constitution of the person who’s working the problem.
Giancarlo: Right. That makes perfect sense. One of the key points that you mentioned right there, less information is more. You don’t want to overpopulate the screens.
You don’t want to give operators too much information, because they could get lost. That would take more time and it would make things more difficult in order to troubleshoot that alarm. With that being said…
Russel: There’s also an issue of cognitive capacity. As my stress raises, my cognitive capacity is diminished. Right? To the extent I can clearly give him, here’s the problem, and clearly provide him a checklist of what to do, I’m going to have a better outcome.
Giancarlo: Excellent point, as well, Yes, good follow up on that. Let me ask you about how does that relate to regulations?
On the leak detection series, we have been talking about the APIs 1130 and 1175, but when it comes to the pipeline control room management, the one that would apply there would be the API 1168, how does that API apply to leak alarm response, or alarm response in general, in order to mitigate and address them appropriately?
Russel: 1168 is a control room management guideline, recommended practice. It gets into things like shift handover and adequate information and such as that. The actual alarm management recommended practice is API 1167.
1167 recommends that you rationalize your alarms. Rationalizing your alarms simply means that I look at every single alarm and I write down what could cause that alarm, bad instrument or operating condition.
What happens automatically in the system when that alarm rings in, we talked about rupture detection and automatically stopping pumps, that kind of thing. It talks about, what are the adverse outcomes if you get this alarm? It talks about what are the corrective actions you should take in order to clear the alarm.
That’s what rationalization is. The idea is, you’re going to do rationalization with all of the appropriate subject matter experts around the table at a time that you’re not under the pressure of time. Where you can do the analysis and the thinking and get that written up in a way, when that alarm comes in, that’s at the operator’s fingertips.
I would assert, and there’s a requirement in the rule that in the control room, all of the alarms and all the alarm rationalization, all that’s available to the controller. Putting that in a book and having a controller look it up is different.
Our approach, when we implemented HMI, is that is accessible with the alarm as part of the diagnostic that pops up when I get the alarm.
Giancarlo: Right, those are some excellent points. 1168 and 1167, as you pointed out, I have been introduced to those and have done some reading on it. The way that you put them and explained it, that makes perfect sense to me. Excellent. I hope the listeners get all of that. Good information.
Another thing that we can actually tie this on, I think, when it comes to API 1175, the leak detection program, making sure that the operator is able to handle all of these alarms. From your experience, how could that relate, or how could we link 1168 or 1167 along with 1175 for the purpose of leak alarm response? What’s your take on that?
Russel: Oh man, that’s a good question, and I didn’t anticipate that one. I have to noodle on that a bit.
Let me frame it this way. 1165  is program, so, program would include things like aerial surveys, walking your line, that type of thing. It can also take into consideration other types of direct detection, like cameras or some of the new technologies in fiber optics and that side of stuff can all be part of a program.
Giancarlo: Just to correct you there, I think you mentioned 1165. You mean 1175, correct?
Russel: Yes, 1175. That’s right. That’s right. 1165 is the standard for human machine interface in the control room. Sorry. I have 11-xx all over my brain.
Giancarlo: There’s a lot of recommended practices out there.
Russel: No doubt. I think the answer is this. When I start thinking of leak alarm response, the things I’m going to do in the control room, I need to do pretty quickly, and they’re going to happen in a timeframe quicker than what I can probably do any kind of evaluation or inspection or direct assessment.
First off, if I have other kinds of leak detection and I’m getting more than one alarm, that can certainly help accelerate my determination I have a valid leak, I can use multiple systems to confirm the other. That’s certainly one thing you can do from a programmatic standpoint.
I think the second part of it is, what’s necessary to have confidence that it’s safe to restart? That gets into some of the other things that I might do in a program that are related to direct assessment.
Giancarlo: Those are very good two points there. Just to follow up…
Russel: I might also give another very specific example. Pipelines are required to be marked. Pipeline markers are required to have a phone number where somebody can call in if there’s an issue. Those kinds of things typically come into the control room, as well, and they are handled generally like any other kind of leak alarm.
We start talking about leak alarm response, it’s not just alarm response related to the SCADA system or the leak detection tools or some kind of direct assessment method that’s ringing in an automated alarm. It could be as simple as somebody picking up the phone and calling somebody.
Giancarlo: Right. It goes back to our fundamentals chat about the different type of leak detection approaches from external to internal methods. All of that needs to be taken into account.
The end goal here is to make sure that the operator reacts and brings the pipeline back to a safe condition. No more damage is taken on into the environment or the areas close to where the leak occurs.
Russel: You’re asking about 1175. You can also bring up pipeline safety management, which is a relatively new standard and a lot of the bigger companies are adopting it. It’s all about, you were at the API Pipeline Conference, I don’t know if you sat in on any of the presentations, but they talked about the goal of triple zero. Zero injuries. Zero incidents. Zero releases.
Giancarlo: Correct, yes.
Russel: That is ultimately the goal we are trying to achieve. All of these things have to work together in order to accomplish that. Leak alarm response is the pointy end of the spear, if you will, related to a responsive and active leak response program.
Giancarlo: Absolutely. That definitely needs to be taken into account. I think that the main areas of when I think of leak alarm response and 1175 come to be around the KPIs and also training for operators.
I think that’s something that needs to be emphasized so when the operator receives that alarm, they already know what it is that they need to do, what action from the point of view, what action to take or who to call, what section to isolate and all of that.
Russel: It’s an ongoing process. You need to continually be improving and refining and documenting those things.
Russel: It’s a very important part of all this. Look, man, I’ve got to tell you, this is fun being the interviewee instead of the interviewer. I really appreciate you doing this, it’s a great way to conclude our series on leak detection. I think this is awesome.
Giancarlo: It’s very good to be on the other side and be the one asking the questions instead.
Giancarlo: It’s definitely very good and from my point of view, learning as well how to react to these alarms, and how do you make sure that you are taking the right action from your operator perspective? Very good information.
That being said, let me just finish, as you do. I think this is a good moment to wrap it up. If we take your three typical takeaways from the podcast, from my point of view. What I would take of this podcast would be number one, making sure that the operator is able to identify when the leak comes in nice and clear.
From that alarm, the first thing that he’s got to do is identify whether it’s a potential leak or a false alarm. That would be one of the first actions. Identifying what’s happening on your pipeline, identifying what’s triggering that alarm to come in.
The second point would be about the operator having a clear understanding of the action that he needs to take after he realizes that the alarm is indeed true or whether he can not come to a conclusion to know whether that is a true leak alarm or not.
Bringing the pipeline back to a safe condition would be one of the most important parts. If you’re in doubt, then you have to shut down. Okay, that even rhymes. That comes out pretty good.
I think the last point that you were making about the APIs and 1168, 67 and relating that to a point of 1175 is making sure that the operator has clear and concise information on how to react. He’s in a calm environment, he knows what’s the next step that he’s got to take.
Also, making sure that he is provided with enough training to know what to do during those conditions. I think that’s my wrap-up. Is there anything that you might want to add to that?
Russel: No, I think that’s awesome. I think the only color I would apply to that is if you take a pilot analogy, we recently had the incident on Southwest Airlines where an engine self destructed and it caused a depressurization of the cabin and there were injuries and one fatality.
You listened to the pilot talking to the ground control and you can hear the calmness, anxiety, and deliberateness all at the same time. That is an illustration of what we as an industry ought to be striving for, as it relates to leak alarm response, is that level of professionalism and capability in operating these systems and protecting the environment. That’s what we’re striving for.
Giancarlo: Absolutely. That’s an excellent point. I think that’s a good segue for bringing up another conversation in itself, which would be the one that you and I have talked about, about pipeline operator training.
Giancarlo: That’s another episode, and that would be a full conversation on its own. Making sure that the operator is able to react nice and calm during those situations. The only way that he’ll be able to get to that point is if he’s had some training during those situations in an offline environment.
Russel: That’s exactly right.
Giancarlo: These pilots go through offline flight simulators and they go through all sorts of scenarios to make sure that when that situation does happen in real life, then they know exactly what to do, what buttons to push, and how to proceed and handle the whole emergency.
Russel: I think you’re exactly right. Giancarlo, I want to underscore how much I appreciate you taking the time and putting in the effort to do a whole series of episodes here on leak detection. I appreciate it. I’m sure the listeners appreciate it.
This is a very important topic to our industry, to our business. I sure appreciate you and Atmos and the contribution you guys have made.
Giancarlo: Thank you, Russel. Thank you for having us. I appreciate you saying that. It’s been a great experience and opportunity to chat with you about leak detections from the perspective of all the different approaches, external/internal type of CPM systems.
It’s a good recap on everything that I’ve done over my career. I’ve really enjoyed it myself. Thank you very much for having me.
Russel: Also, I want to encourage the listeners, go to the PipelinersPodcast.com website and click through to the show notes for this episode.
Atmos is extending an offer to give the book, “Introduction to Pipeline Leak Detection,” which I think is an excellent resource for anybody that’s trying to learn about leak detection and leak detection programs.
Again, Giancarlo and Atmos, thank you very much for that. I encourage the listeners to go and avail yourself of that opportunity.
Giancarlo: Thank you, Russel. Please go to our website and download the book. Fill out the information if you want a hard copy, and we’ll be more than happy to send you one. Thank you very much, Russel, once again.
Russel: I hope you enjoyed this week’s episode of the Pipeliners Podcast, and in particular, this series that we’ve done on leak detection.
Special thank you to Giancarlo for all his contribution to make this series on leak detection a success. We would really and I would really appreciate your feedback about doing this as a series and what you thought about that.
Just a reminder before you go, you should register to win our customized Pipeliners Podcast YETI tumbler. Simply visit PipelinersPodcast.com/win to enter yourself in the drawing.
If you have ideas, questions, or topics you’d be interested in, please let us know either on the Contact Us page at PipelinersPodcast.com, or you can reach out to me directly on LinkedIn. Thanks for listening. I’ll talk to you next week.
Transcription by CastingWords