In this month’s edition of the Pipeline Technology Podcast sponsored by Pipeline & Gas Journal, Colton Sheets of Stress Engineering Services discusses his recent PGJ article, “Operating, Installation Considerations For Pipeline Composite Repairs.”
You will learn about the fundamentals of pipeline composite repair, the importance of understanding how to install composite repair material, the need for quality control for complex composite repair projects, the results of a 10-year PRCI study on the long-term degradation of composites installed on pipelines, and much more.
Pipeline Composite Repair: Show Notes, Links, and Insider Terms
- Colton Sheets is a Senior Associate at Stress Engineering Services, Inc. Connect with Colton on LinkedIn.
- Stress Engineering Services, Inc. provides comprehensive design, analysis, and testing services to the oil and gas industry with an unsurpassed level of engineering integrity and skill. [Visit Stress.com]
- Access Colton’s Pipeline & Gas Journal article, “Operating, Installation Considerations For Pipeline Composite Repairs,” in the June 2020 edition of the magazine.
- Read Colton’s Stress.com article, “Guideline For Using Composite Materials For Pipeline Repair.”
- Composite Repair is a non-metallic repair used for pipelines. When designed and installed correctly, the repair can restore a pipeline’s structural integrity to a performance level that is oftentimes equal to the original condition of the pipe.
- Wet Lay Up system is used to strengthen high-pressure pipe. In this system, a fabric material (carbon or glass) is saturated in a resin matrix material to create stiffness and then is typically wrapped around the pipe in the hoop direction or the axial direction to provide reinforcement of the pipe.
- Corrosion in pipeline inspection refers to a type of metal loss anomaly that could indicate the deterioration of a pipe. Inline inspection techniques are used to evaluate the severity of corrosion.
- ILI (Inline Inspection) is a method to assess the integrity and condition of a pipe by determining the existence of cracks, deformities, or other structural issues that could cause a leak.
- Cracks in pipeline inspection refer to breaks, splits, flaws, or deformities in the surface of a pipe. Inline inspection tools are used to evaluate the severity of the crack.
- Laminations are a type of defect that arises during the manufacturing of metallic pipe. Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect the presence of laminations.
- Delamination is the separation of layers within the composite repair (i.e., individual layers not bonded).
- Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is the growth of crack formation in a highly-corrosive environment. The presence of SCC can lead to the failure of a pipeline under stress, especially in extreme temperatures.
- JIP (Joint Industry Project) is a collaborative project between stakeholders interested in the repair of pipelines using joint funding and technology. For example, developing a deepwater pipeline repair system and cooperative ownership group for affecting emergency repairs of damaged pipelines.
- Read more about an example project covered by Stress Engineering Services, “DW RUPE: A New Deepwater Pipeline Repair Capability for the Gulf of Mexico and Other Deepwater Regions.”
- JIP (Joint Industry Project) is a collaborative project between stakeholders interested in the repair of pipelines using joint funding and technology. For example, developing a deepwater pipeline repair system and cooperative ownership group for affecting emergency repairs of damaged pipelines.
- PRCI (Pipeline Research Council International) is a community of the world’s leading pipeline companies, vendors, service providers, equipment manufacturers, and other organizations supporting the oil and gas industry.
- Listen to Pipeliners Podcast episode 54 with PRCI president Cliff Johnson on how the PRCI has developed a data hub to store information from across the pipeline industry.
- MAOP (maximum allowable operating pressure) was included in a bulletin issued by PHSMA informing owners and operators of gas transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds MAOP plus the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or control devices, the owner or operator must report the exceedance to PHMSA on or before the fifth day following the date on which the exceedance occurs. If the pipeline is subject to the regulatory authority of one of PHMSA’s State Pipeline Safety Partners, the exceedance must also be reported to the applicable state agency.
- SMYS (Specified Minimum Yield Strength) is a measurement of a pipe’s strength, as determined by the manufacturing specifications of the pipe.
Pipeline Composite Repair: Full Episode Transcript
Russel Treat: Welcome to the Pipeline Technology Podcast, episode three. On this episode, our guest is Colton Sheets, Senior Associate at Stress Engineering. We’re going to talk to Colton about his Pipeline & Gas Journal article titled “Operating, Installation Considerations For Pipeline Composite Repairs,” which appeared in the June 2020 issue.
Announcer: The Pipeline Technology Podcast, brought to you by Pipeline & Gas Journal, the decision-making resource for pipeline and midstream professionals. Now your host, Russel Treat.
Russel: Colton, welcome to the Pipeline Technology Podcast.
Colton Sheets: Hey, Russel. Thanks for having me. I’m happy to be here.
Russel: I’m glad to have you as well. I’m very interested to have this conversation. I want to warn you in advance this is a subject matter that definitely is out of my experience and expertise. I’m going to be on the learning curve. I reserve the right to ask simple questions.
Colton: Hey, no problem. That sounds good to me.
Russel: Why don’t we start by asking you to tell the listeners a little bit about yourself, your background, how you got into pipelining, and what you do at Stress Engineering?
Colton: That sounds good. I’m a Senior Associate at Stress Engineering Services here in Houston, Texas. I got to Texas by way of Arkansas originally and then Oklahoma. One of my graduate advisers recommended that I apply to Stress Engineering Services because they described it as Disneyland for engineers. When you’re an engineering student, you can’t pass that up.
Ended up applying, got a job here at Stress about eight years ago now. Over those eight years, I’ve been working in a few different roles. Started out as a test engineer. At Stress Engineering, we’re pretty well known for our full-scale testing capabilities. We do a lot of load testing, pressure testing, elevated temperatures, load temperatures, really anything that’s off the wall.
Through that initial work, I also got connected with Chris Alexander, who ran our midstream group at the time and transitioned into doing a lot of midstream and pipeline work, and had a focus on testing for pipeline applications.
As part of that, I started doing a lot of work looking at composite reinforcement of pipelines and have done a pretty wide variety of tests looking at using composites to repair various defects in pipelines.
Russel: Basically, you get paid to break things?
Colton: I know, right. I like to describe it a bit as Mythbusters. Somebody gives us a problem to figure out. In the process of that, we often get to blow things up and break things. It’s really fun.
Russel: I got to do a little bit of that myself when I was in the military. It was a highlight of my experience. I’m with you, man. I asked you to come on and talk about your June article in Pipeline & Gas Journal, which was entitled “Operating, Installation Considerations For Pipeline Composite Repairs.” Maybe, the best question to ask to start with some basics, what is a composite repair?
Colton: A composite repair is a non-metallic, typically, repair that’s used often for pipeline applications. A composite, in general, is a combination of separate materials into essentially a new material, trying to retain some of the desirable properties from each material to make a new, more optimized material.
In the case of a composite repair for pipeline applications, we’re talking about a fiber matrix, wet layup composite. What that means is that you have a fabric material that’s made of some type of fiber, whether that’s carbon fiber or glass fibers, and then a resin matrix material.
The fabric material is saturated. The resin cures, hardens, and gives stiffness to the fabric material. This material that has stiffness from the fibers is typically wrapped around the pipe to provide reinforcement, either in the hoop direction or the axial direction on the pipe, depending on the type of defect that’s being reinforced or the loading conditions that the defect is experiencing.
Russel: This would be an alternative repair technique versus using something like a sleeve?
Colton: Exactly, it’s an alternative to a steel sleeve or some type of clamp. It is often used as an alternative to those techniques.
Russel: What would cause an operator to select a composite repair versus the other alternatives?
Colton: There’s a few different reasons. One of the advantages of a wet layup system, like I mentioned, is that prior to the resin curing and hardening, the composite is still very formable. You can wrap it around the pipe. You can form it to bends or pipe that’s ovalized. You can do long sections. Some of that’s a little more difficult to do with a steel sleeve or a clamp.
The other advantage is you don’t have to weld. In some applications, it’s difficult to get welders in the ditch, or there may be conditions where you don’t want to do welding. Those are some of the reasons why you would maybe go towards a composite repair as opposed to a steel sleeve.
Russel: Interesting. Tell me, what are the design considerations? When you’re looking at a repair, and you’ve determined that you’re going to do a composite, what comes next? What do you start looking at?
Colton: There’s several considerations that you want to account for when you’re designing a composite. One of the first things that you want to do is take a look at the defect that you’re reinforcing and understand how you’re going to want to reinforce it with this composite repair.
Are you primarily concerned about loading in the hoop direction that would be caused by internal pressure in the pipe? Are you concerned about axial loading if it was subjected to some soil movement or other axial load condition?
You’re going to want to know, characterize your defect, and understand how much reinforcement you need. From there, you’ll be able to design the composite and determine how much thickness you need the composite, how thick you need the composite to be, how stiff you need the composite to be. That might guide you towards a carbon fiber-based system versus a glass fiber-based system.
Then, you would want to look at other considerations as well, operational considerations. Is this composite going to see a lot of internal pressure cycling, for instance? Would you need to consider fatigue? Is there going to be a wide range of temperatures that the composite is going to experience?
Since this material is non-metallic, it’s much more sensitive to temperature fluctuation. You want to make sure that the composite materials are appropriate for the temperatures that it would experience.
Russel: Colton, I’m always amazed when I have these conversations in these domains that I’m not knowledgeable about, which is many of the domains I ended up talking about these days. It seems like just how much detail and experience and very considerations there are, and something that on the surface of it would seem simple or straight for you.
“I dig the pipeline up. I wrap it. I let it cure, and I put the pipeline. I re-bury the pipeline.” Seems pretty straightforward. These things never are. There’s always lots of considerations.
Colton: That’s definitely the truth. You can get into some pretty complex situations. Composites, the interesting thing is that they’re very customizable, and you can optimize them for different situations. Composites are used everywhere in our daily lives now.
Russel: I would think not only with the materials but with the fabric part of that stuff and the way you organize and align the fibers versus the strength and reinforcing you’re trying to provide that all that could be a consideration.
Colton: Definitely. That gets back to the question of analyzing the defect that you’re trying to repair and understanding where you want to provide that reinforcement.
If it’s a situation where you’re concerned about hoop stresses in the pipeline, then you’re going to want the majority of your fibers oriented in that direction because that’s going to give you the most stiffness and reinforcement.
Similarly, if you were trying to reinforce a defect from axial stresses, you’d want your fibers oriented in that direction. Most of the composites that certainly we deal with are what we call biaxial, so they have fibers oriented in both directions.
There are uniaxial systems out there that give you a lot of stiffness in one direction. Even as you’re installing the multiple layers within the composite, you could orient those in different directions to give you the reinforcement that you need.
Russel: Again, I could visualize this in my mind’s eye about how all that would work. What often gets overlooked when somebody’s designing the composite repair?
Colton: There’s several things that often get overlooked. One of the main ones is surface preparation, and surface preparation is important for a few different reasons. Number one is your composite. You want it well bonded whatever you’re repairing.
It’s easy when you’re doing a test and qualifying a system to have really nice surface preparation in the lab doing sandblasting and things like that. When you get out into the field, that’s something that people maybe don’t think is important, or think, “Oh, we don’t have time to do that,” but it’s really critical to give a good surface for that composite to bond to.
You’re wanting that composite to act as a barrier in many cases to the external environment. If you’re trying to reinforce an external corrosion defect, the last thing you want is a composite to disbond, and allow the external environment to get between the composite and the pipe, and allow that defect to grow.
You really want the composite well bonded to act as a barrier. Also, if you’re reinforcing any type of axial loads, you’re going to need the composite well bonded so that it can adhere to the pipe and transfer those axial loads to the composite so that you actually get the reinforcement that you’re expecting.
Russel: Interesting. That leads us into a conversation, so what I’d like you to do is, if you could, just walk us through the actual repair process. Talk to us about preparation, what’s involved, how you affect the repair as the pipeline’s operating, and then what are you doing with the repair after you’ve got it in place and you’re doing continued operations.
Colton: A repair that’s done in our lab is a little bit different than a repair that’s done in the field, but the processes are generally the same. Basically, you’re going to have your defect, and you’re going to have access to that defect. You’re going to determine obviously, as we’ve discussed, what type of repair you’re wanting to install.
I’m going to use the wet layup repair that we’ve been talking about as an example. The first thing you’re going to do is prep the surface of the defect. If this was like an external corrosion type of defect, you might go through and sandblast the defect area.
Everywhere you’re going to be installing the composite, you’d want to have a nice sandblasted finish. I’m using sandblasting as an example. Different systems may be qualified to different surface finishes. It may not necessarily have to be sandblasted, but you’re going to prep the surface to whatever is required for that given system.
The next thing that you’re probably going to do is install what we call a filler material. A filler material is used basically to round out the geometry of the pipe in most cases.
In an external corrosion situation, the last thing you want is to give a lot of sharp corners to your fibers as you’re installing it or leave gaps between the pipe and the composite reinforcement. You would fill the external corrosion with this filler material that’s really hard. It’s also typically an epoxy material.
It’s going to cure as well in filling any gaps and allow you to easily transfer the load from the pipe to the composite reinforcement. You’re going to install that. You’re probably going to install an adhesive primer layer in between the filler material and your first layer of your composite just to help the composite bond to the pipe.
Then, you’ll start wrapping layers around the pipe. You’ll take your fabric, you’ll saturate it with the resin, and before the resin is cured, you have what we call a working time. That’s the time between the resin is mixed and when it becomes fully cured and hardened.
Within that amount of time, you’re going to start wrapping layers around the pipe, the saturated fabric layers. Then, you’ll install those until you reach the designed thickness that you’ve determined based on the defect and the load conditions.
You’ll keep installing that until you reach that, and then you’ll let the composite cure. Depending on the installation temperature and the external environment temperature, and the system itself, the composites will have different cure times.
Once that has occurred, and the composite is cured, then basically you have a composite repair, and then you could coat over it if needed, and at that point, you should be good to go.
Russel: What are the considerations once you have one of these composites in place as you begin to rebury the pipe, and now you’re operating the pipe. How do you monitor and understand the effectiveness of that repair over the likely anticipated useful life of that repair?
Colton: That’s definitely one of the challenges of using a composite repair is monitoring.
One of the things that you’re going to want to do is if you’re using something like an inline inspection tool, and you do multiple tool runs, you’re going to want to make sure as a preliminary check that you’re not seeing major growth of the defect that was reinforced between ILI tool runs. That’s one check that you can do to make sure that the composite’s doing its job.
A couple of other considerations that should be taken into account during the design process is “is this a line that we’re going to be doing some major either spike tests or hydrostatic tests on down the road,” then should we account for that when we do the upfront design of the repair.
Those are some keen operational considerations that should take place when you’re actually designing the composite, and then if there’s going to be any changes in the service temperature as well.
If for some reason, the line might experience elevated temperatures, you would want to know that before you install the composite. That way, you can select the material that’s going to be acceptable for those temperatures.
Russel: [laughs] Again, it’s interesting. I’m not saying a lot in this particular conversation. I’m listening intently to what you’re talking about. As you’re walking through the repair, I can visualize that in my mind’s eye, and I can relate it to what I know about doing sailboat repair and fixing fiberglass and such because this is a similar kind of process.
Colton: Definitely. I think your sailboat repairs are going to use similar materials to what would be used in a pipeline.
Russel: Yeah, and there’s a little bit of a design because you’ve got to know, “Am I trying to fix a hole? Am I trying to fix a crack? Am I trying to fix a delamination? Am I trying to deal with degradation due to sunlight?” Those all require a slightly different approach.
“Am I trying to build strength, or in a boat, am I trying to make it pretty?” Those are also different considerations. You tend to build the repairs up to address what you need to address.
Colton: Definitely, and I think you touched on one that I failed to mention earlier, but the UV exposure, that’s definitely a consideration that you would need for a composite repair.
Russel: I would think also whether or not…If you talk about an underwater pipeline versus a pipeline in a trench, versus an above-ground pipeline in the sun, particularly for this kind of repair, those are all considerations.
Colton: Definitely. I think that’s where, oftentimes, we lean heavily on the standards and expect them to take into account every consideration, but oftentimes, we have to rely on the engineering judgment, and we talked about getting to break things at stress engineering.
One of the fun things that we also get to do is test composites in a bunch of these different environments that we’re talking about.
Russel: That’s a great segue because I wanted to ask you about…We talked about this when we were prepping for this episode. You were telling me about the PRCI 10-year study. Maybe you can tell us a little bit about that study and what you learned.
Colton: Sure. The PRCI 10-year study is a study that recently, we finished up. I was actually in college when the study started. [laughs] It was a study looking at the long-term degradation of composites installed on pipelines and looking for evidence to see if that’s a phenomenon that occurs.
Composites have been demonstrated to provide reinforcement for a variety of different defects and applications, but people still had questions on the long term durability of a composite. The study basically consisted of fabrication of a bunch of pipe samples, and by a bunch, I mean over 180, with machined wall loss defects to simulate external corrosion.
All of these pipe samples were repaired with various composite repair systems and then buried in the ground, and then the longest duration samples were buried for up to 10 years.
Over the course of that 10 years, we periodically excavated the samples and did burst tests, and the idea was that we could look at the results of the burst testing and see if there is evidence of performance degradation over time.
We would pull samples out at one year, two years, three years, five years, and so on, and compare the burst test results to what we’ve seen previously in the study.
What we found is that you do get some performance variation from system to system, but that composites can be designed and installed to have acceptable performance for the full 10 years of the study.
We saw several systems that performed really well, and it just goes back to qualifying the systems, making sure that they’re well installed, using systems that had been appropriately designed and installed, and if that’s the case, then there’s no reason that a composite couldn’t be used for a long period of time.
Russel: Interesting. What would you say if you were going to summarize it, just to give the listeners a little bit of the flavor, the technical details of the findings? What were some of the technical learnings that came up as a part of doing this process?
To me, the idea of taking similar pieces of pipe, putting in similar defects in a planned way, and then burying those things, and repairing them, and burying them, and then looking at them over time, how much variability did you see in the burst results?
Colton: I think that’s where, like I said, you do see variation from system to system. We had some systems that couldn’t achieve our first hold pressures. By hold pressure, we typically set a target threshold that we try to achieve during a pressure test at pressures that might be of interest to pipeline operators.
Russel: Looking at a particular manufacturer’s spec for a pipe segment and saying, “Well, let’s do a hydrostatic test on this segment and make sure that we can verify an MOP.”
Colton: Exactly. It’s, “Over the course of a burst test, let’s take this particular sample up to MOP or MAOP and just hold it for 15 minutes or so, and make sure that the composite is doing its job at this pressure level, and then let’s take it up to 100 percent SMYS, which might be a hydro test pressure.
“Then, let’s take it a little bit higher than that, which might be a spike test pressure, and then let’s take it all the way to burst.”
Russel: Were you putting strain gauges and such on the pipe to actually measure these numbers?
Colton: Yeah, exactly.
Russel: Now, I’m getting all interested. I want to see how well they go.
Colton: [laughs] There you go. What we do is we install strain gauges in our machined wall loss area, so we’re actually installing strain gauges in our defect.
As a comparison, we’re always installing strain gauges out in the base pipe as well, so the nominal undamaged pipe. Then, we can compare, what’s the strain level in a reinforced defect to the strain level in undamaged pipe?
Russel: Not only that but how is that strain propagating through the metal wall? Is it concentrating someplace, and is that a problem?
Colton: Right. When you’re comparing the defect to the undamaged pipe, what you can see is, even though this is a defect where we’ve taken away 75 percent of the pipe wall thickness, the strains in this defect are lower than the nominal pipe that doesn’t have any defects and is undamaged, and that’s because the composite is providing so much reinforcement to that area.
Colton: The ultimate test is when we take the sample to failure. In many instances, failure occurs out in the unreinforced but undamaged section of the pipe. That means that the defect that, in many cases, is 75 percent of the wall thickness, the reinforced defect is stronger than just the nominal base pipe.
We found that in many samples that we tested over the course of the 10-year study, some systems were able to produce that result in every burst test over the course of the full study.
That wasn’t always the case, and a composite isn’t always designed to do that necessarily, but it’s a really interesting result, and it’s a qualitative black and white of, this reinforced defect is stronger than just nominal pipe.
Russel: I think that goes to something that I try to tell people that don’t know about pipelining, and they’re asking me what I do. Pipelines have been in the press a lot because, when they fail, they tend to get a lot of attention, even though they don’t fail very often in the overall scheme of things.
The thing that’s always interesting to me is this kind of conversation because it illustrates how we operate and maintain these pipelines and why we can have something in the ground so long and still have a high degree of reliability in that pipe.
Colton: That’s exactly right.
Russel: It’s about the lifetime O&M (operations & maintenance) program around that pipe.
Colton: Exactly, and I think a lot of people don’t realize the detail that goes into designing some of these systems. It’s easy to think, “Oh, it’s just a pipe,” but, like you mentioned, the use of strain gauges and collecting very technical information about not only the pipe but the repair systems that are used to remediate defects in the pipe.
Russel: Before we wrap up here, Colton, I wanted to ask you about the stress corrosion cracking joint industry project that you’re involved with. Maybe you could tell us a little bit about that and what you’re trying to learn in that particular project.
Colton: Certainly. As we’ve talked about in the conversation, composites are used for a wide range of defects that are encountered in pipelines — external corrosion, dents.
We’ve also looked at using composites to reinforce cracks and crack-like defects, and so we have a significant amount of data accumulated to address those defects, and we’re always looking for new applications for composites.
The composite repair manufacturers are finding new applications, and pipeline operators have new applications where they think a composite would be a really beneficial tool for them.
One of these next areas is stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The idea of the stress corrosion cracking JIP (joint industry project) is to check the feasibility of using composites to reinforce stress corrosion cracking.
Stress corrosion cracking is a little bit different than external corrosion, or even a single-crack anomaly, because it typically consists of a colony of very small interlinked cracks, short interlinked cracks that can sometimes be fairly deep within the pipe wall thickness.
The idea is that we would collect real SCC defects from the field, from operators, and then we would reinforce those with composite repair systems and try to mimic actual installation conditions.
We’d be trying to install these composites with pressure in the pipe during the installation, and then we would subject the reinforced defects to a series of tests.
Likely, that’s going to consist of cyclic internal pressure testing to make sure that cyclic pressure isn’t growing the SCC underneath the composite in terms of getting crack extension through the pipe wall thickness, and then we would also include burst tests to make sure that the composite can provide sufficient reinforcement from that perspective.
A desirable outcome from that might be failure in base pipe outside of a reinforced SCC colony.
Russel: Similar to the 10-year study with PRCI, but just looking at a different kind of defect.
Colton: Yeah, very similar in terms of the testing that’s conducted. Obviously, 10 years is a pretty significant undertaking, so the time-dependent aspect won’t be there, but certainly, the testing will be very similar.
Russel: Interesting. Man, this has been awesome. I’ve learned a ton. I often try to summarize an episode like this with some takeaways. I’ll be honest with you. My takeaway for this episode is, find an expert, and ask lots of questions.
Maybe, you could do this for me. What do you think that you’d like for operators to know about composite repair that maybe they don’t know?
Colton: First of all, you have a great takeaway, and there’s a lot of great experts out there on composite repairs. A lot of the composite repair manufacturers have obviously a ton of expertise.
Understanding that the composites, it’s not necessarily a one size fits all. It’s not necessarily the same as a steel sleeve. You can have the best designed composite repair. You can have the best materials, but if it’s not installed properly, it’s not going to do you any good.
There’s a lot of key variables that you need to be considering before you do the actual installation of the composite. You want to make sure to try to save yourself some headaches down the road.
Looking at surface preparation, understanding its importance, looking at operational conditions including temperature, and just knowing that a composite repair is going to be more influenced by those variables that may be your steel sleeve would be.
Russel: I guess that my takeaway would be that you need a specific design that includes a specific implementation plan. That implementation plan needs to be quality controlled because this composite repair is more of a targeted repair for a specific feature versus a sleeve is more of a generic, if you will.
Colton: That’s a good way to say it. The composite repairs for external corrosion are pretty standard at this point. The standards are great resources for that. As you increase in complexity, as you said, you need to make sure that you’re checking all of your boxes from a design standpoint and a quality assurance standpoint.
Russel: Awesome. Listen, Colton. This has been awesome. I really appreciate you coming on to the Pipeline Technology Podcast. You need to write another article so we can bring you back and talk some more.
Colton: That sounds great. I appreciate you guys having me and for the interest in the article. Obviously, if anybody has any follow-up discussion, just feel free to reach out to me, and I’m always happy to talk about it.
Russel: For those that want to know how to contact Colton, the best way to find his information is to go to the Pipeliners Podcast website and search through the guests. You’ll find him and his contact info, and you can reach out.
I hope you enjoyed this week’s episode of the Pipeline Technology Podcast and our conversation with Colton Sheets. If you’d like to support this podcast, please leave us a review on Apple Podcast, Google Play, or whatever smart device you happen to use to listen. You can find instructions at pipelinerspodcast.com.
If there’s a Pipeline & Gas Journal article that you would like to hear the author discuss, please let me know on the Contact Us page at pipelinerspodcast.com or reach out to me on LinkedIn. Thanks for listening. I’ll talk to you next month.
Transcription by CastingWords