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View all of our podcasts, white papers, videos and other resources on the subject of Construction & Inspection & Repair.
Ambient Temperature: the temperature surrounding a piece of equipment. The equipment typically includes sensors to recognize changes to the temperature and send the data to personnel monitoring the temperature.
API 1111: sets criteria for the design, construction, testing, operation, and maintenance of offshore steel pipelines utilized in the production, production support, or transportation of hydrocarbons; that is, the movement by pipeline of hydrocarbon liquids, gases, and mixtures of these hydrocarbons with water. This Recommended Practice may also be utilized for water injection pipelines offshore.
API 1163: overs the use of in-line inspection (ILI) systems for onshore and offshore gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This includes, but is not limited to, tethered, self-propelled, or free-flowing systems for detecting metal loss, cracks, mechanical damage, pipeline geometries, and pipeline location or mapping, The standard applies to both existing and developing technologies.
API 1169: outlines the Pipeline Construction Inspection Certification requirements. The qualification requirements for API 1169 are based on a combination of the number of years of experience acquired within the last 20 years, plus education, and in some cases, other certifications.
API 1172: assists all parties to safely manage construction activities of new or modified facilities parallel to existing underground transmission pipelines.
API 1176: enhances pipeline integrity by providing a comprehensive guide on how to predict and prevent pipeline failures due to cracking.
API 1177: provides a framework for a quality management system (QMS) for onshore pipeline construction.
API 2200: discusses guidelines for safe practices while repairing in-service pipelines for hazardous liquids. This Recommended Practice addresses the needs for qualified personnel and advanced planning (including site assessment) to facilitate safe overall repair activities.
Axial and Circumferential Magnetic Tools: evaluate metal loss going down a pipeline. Axial refers to when the flux runs along the pipeline and circumferential refers to the flux running around the pipe.
Caliper Tool: uses geometry for inspection. The tool runs sensors along the wall of a pipeline to continuously measure the diameter and report back the data.
Cathodic Protection: a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
Coating Disbondment: occurs when the external coating applied for corrosion and/or abrasion protection has separated from the pipe.
Computational Pipeline Modeling (CPM): a digital method of mapping out a pipeline’s operational conditions and processes to track the flow of a liquid or gas through the pipeline.
CPM (Computational Pipeline Modeling): a digital method of mapping out a pipeline’s operational conditions and processes to track the flow of a liquid or gas through the pipeline.
EMAT (Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer): an ultrasonic tool that uses sound waves to perform non-contact inline pipeline inspection.
Helically-Oriented Tools: used to measure metal loss in the shape of a helix or spiral.
High-Consequence Areas (HCAs): defined by PHMSA as a potential impact zone that contains 20 or more structures intended for human occupancy or an identified site. PHMSA identifies how pipeline operators must identify, prioritize, assess, evaluate, repair, and validate the integrity of gas transmission pipelines that could, in the event of a leak or failure, affect HCAs.
- MCA (Moderate-Consequence Areas or Medium-Consequence Areas): designated areas for gas transmission pipelines.
Inline Inspection (ILI): a method to assess the integrity and condition of a pipe by determining the existence of cracks, deformities, or other structural issues that could cause a leak.
Integrity Management: a systematic approach to operate and manage pipelines in a safe manner that complies with PHMSA regulations.
Leak Detection Systems: include external and internal methods. External methods are based on observing external factors within the pipeline to see if any product is released outside the line. Internal methods are based on measuring parameters of the hydraulics of the pipeline such as flow rate, pressure, density, or temperature. The information is placed in a computational algorithm to determine whether there is a leak.
Leak Rate: measures the accuracy of a leak alarm by comparing how much product is coming into the pipeline versus what is going out of the pipeline.
Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL): a magnetic method of nondestructive testing that is used to detect corrosion and pitting in steel structures such as pipelines.
Negative Pressure Wave: a method to detect the occurrence and location of leak incidents in a pipeline based purely on the pressure drop due to a leak as it travels up and down the pipeline. Three core technical challenges include data quality, dynamic slope, and false alarms causing changes to normal working conditions.
Nominal Flow Rate: measures the volume of a substance passing through the pipeline under specific pressure conditions in normal operating conditions.
Pigging: the use of devices known as “pigs” to perform maintenance operations. This tool associated with inline pipeline inspection has now become known as a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG).
Pressure Drop Analysis: allows a pipeline operator to determine the location of a leak by comparing the data recorded from adjacent pressure sensors.
Real-Time Transient Model (RTTM): simulates the behavior of a pipeline using computational algorithms. The model, which is driven by the field instrumentation, monitors discrepancies between the measured and calculated values potential caused by a leak. RTTM uses flow, pressure, temperature, and density among many other variables.
- Enhanced RTTM: an advanced version of the real-time transient model uses advanced data collection capabilities to reduce the occurrences of false alarms in a system.
Robustness: the ability of the leak detection model to perform under a range of scenarios that happen in real-world operating conditions.
SmartBall: provides accurate leak and gas pocket detection without interrupting service to make the inspection.
Statistical Volume Balance: a method using the volume in and out of a pipeline, along with pressure changes to account for the pipeline inventory in real-time. This method is also capable of detecting smaller leaks while coping with transient conditions. A statistical approach using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) evaluates the probability of a leak in the pipeline.
Tuning or Optimization: the process of analyzing the results from a leak detection model and the results from the instrumentation to verify the accuracy of the data from the field.
Whitepapers & eBooks
NACE: Corrosion Control in Petroleum Production, Third Edition
“Mr. Corrosion” Bob Franco, a guest on the Pipeliners Podcast, and Timothy Bieri wrote the third edition of “Corrosion Control in Petroleum Production,” as published by NACE International. The expanded third edition is written for non-experts who have the responsibility for corrosion management in oil and gas. It provides an overview of various corrosion threats, the methods for controlling corrosion, and the establishment of a management system based on risk and continuous improvement.